Sudan

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Ri̱pobi̱lik Sudan wu
جمهورية السودان, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān (La̱ra̱ba)
Republic of the Sudan (Shong)

A̱keangtung Khartum
Shi kyai 1,886,068 km²
Shi á̱niet 45,709,353 ab. (2022)

A̱bwom a̱byin: "نحن جند الله، جند الوطن"
Naḥnu jund Allah, jund al-waṭan
("Á̱nietnzwang A̱gwaza Bya Zi̱ Yet, Á̱nietnzwang Á̱niet Ba")

A̱byin Sudan (Shong: /suːˈdɑːn/; La̱ra̱ba: السودان, as-Sūdān), á̱ lyen ma̱ng a̱lyoot a̱gwomna̱ti nka nang Ri̱pobi̱lik Sudan wu (La̱ra̱ba: جمهورية السودان, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān, Shong: Republic of the Sudan) a̱ni, yet a̱byin kya di̱ fam a̱byin A̱za-a̱tyin Afrika. Ka̱ byia̱ a̱gi̱gak ma̱ng bibyin Ma̱sa̱r di̱ fam a̱za hu, Li̱biya di̱ fam a̱za-jenshyung hu, Caad di̱ fam jenshyung hu, Ri̱pobi̱lik A̱ka̱wa̱tyia̱ Afrika wu di̱ fam a̱tak-jenshyung hu, Sudan A̱tak di̱ fam a̱tak hu, Ityopya di̱ fam a̱tak-a̱tyin hu, Eritrea di̱ fam a̱tyin hu, ma̱ng A̱shong Kyai A̱sa̱khwot wu di̱ fam a̱za-a̱tyin. A̱byin Sudan byia̱ shi á̱niet miliyon 44.91 ma̱ a̱lyia̱ 2021[1] ka̱ si̱ kup shi kyai a̱byin kilomita a̱ma̱ntaa̱naai 1,886,068 (met a̱ma̱ntaa̱naai 728,215), si̱ huni si̱ tyia̱ ka̱ yet a̱tat mi̱ bibyin Afrika di̱n vak shi a̱byin a mbeang a̱tat meang mi̱ shi a̱byin mi̱ Liig A̱la̱ra̱ba hu. Kikya ku yet a̱byin ka̱ swak di̱ shi a̱byin mi̱ Afrika ma̱ng Liig A̱la̱ra̱ba hu ba̱ng si̱ tat but a̱byin Sudan A̱tak hu ma̱ a̱lyia̱ 2011 a̱ni,[2] kyiak neet di̱n jen a̱ja Aljeriya wa si̱ kyiak lyulyoot nfeang hu. A̱keangtung nka, kikya yet Khartum, ma̱nang a̱gba̱ndang a̱keang a̱ swak mi̱ shi wu si̱ yet Omdurman.

Bwoi a̱lyoot[jhyuk | jhyuk a̱tyin ka]

A̱lyoot ka neet mi̱ng La̱ra̱ba bilād as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), ku "A̱byin A̱dyundyung ka".[3]

Nkhang[jhyuk | jhyuk a̱tyin ka]

Nkhang gbangbang (neet ma̱ a̱zaghyi c. 8000 BC)[jhyuk | jhyuk a̱tyin ka]

A̱li nwuat za̱nang bi̱ri̱ki nvap ka, nang á̱ ngyei Jenshyung Deffufa a̱ni, ma̱ a̱keang Kerma
Fortress of Buhen, of the Middle Kingdom, reconstructed under the New Kingdom (about 1200 BC)

Mi̱ miliniyom a̱ni̱nai hu A̱zaghyi Kristi (A̱K), á̱niet taada Ce A̱fan Fai ba ku kpaat swat ba̱ si̱ swan ma̱sa̱t a̱ja mami a̱baka̱keang bi̱ri̱ki vap nang á̱ cok a̱ni, awot ba̱ si̱ mun nyia̱ a̱kat ma̱ng bwoi fa̱n ma̱ A̱ghyui Nayit ba̱ si̱ kwok yak ba̱ si̱ cam nyák.[4]

The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush (with the capital at Kerma) at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicates that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.[5]

Kingdom of Kush (c. 1070 BC–350 AD)[jhyuk | jhyuk a̱tyin ka]

Nubian pyramids in Meroë
Kušiya soldier of the Achaemenid army, kp. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.

Geography[jhyuk | jhyuk a̱tyin ka]

Map. The Hala'ib Triangle has been under contested Egyptian administration since 2000.
Köppen climate classification map

Sudan swa̱n mi̱ng A̱za a̱firika ta̱bat ma̱853 km (530 mi) coastline bordering the Red Sea.[6] A̱biye gák a̱byin ma̱ng Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Chad, and Libya. With an area of 1,886,068 km2 (728,215 sq mi), it is the third-largest country on the continent (after Algeria and Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the fifteenth-largest in the world.

Sudan lies between latitudes and 23°N. The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by mountain ranges. In the west, the Deriba Caldera (3,042 m or 9,980 ft), located in the Marrah Mountains, is the highest point. In the east are the Red Sea Hills.[7]

Mineral resources include asbestos, chromite, cobalt, copper, gold, granite, gypsum, iron, kaolin, lead, manganese, mica, natural gas, nickel, petroleum, silver, tin, uranium and zinc.[8]

The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms, known as haboob, which can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on rainfall for agriculture and some are nomadic, travelling with their herds of sheep and camels. Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops.[9]

Desertification is a problem.[10] There is concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table.[11] The wildlife is threatened by poaching. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Critically endangered species include: the waldrapp, northern white rhinoceros, tora hartebeest, slender-horned gazelle, and hawksbill turtle. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.[12]

Ya̱fang[jhyuk | jhyuk a̱tyin ka]

  1. "Sudan population". World Population Review.
  2. "Area". The World Factbook. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.
  3. International Association for the History of Religions (1959), Numen, Leiden: EJ Brill, p. 131, A̱byin A̱tyin a̱firika̱ ta̱ba̱t neet a̱tyin siniga̱t a̱wot asi mim mung kamarun a̱tyin; Jen jhiyang aku yei ngu akautiye mbeang Sudan jenshyung, the Bilad as-Sūdan, 'Land of the Blacks', of the Arabs
  4. Ta‌̱mpi‌̱let:Citeweb
  5. Keita, S.O.Y. (1993). "Studies and Comments on Ancient Egyptian Biological Relationships". History in Africa. 20 (7): 129–54. doi:10.2307/3171969. JSTOR 317196. S2CID 162330365.
  6. "Sudan geography". Institute for Security Studies. 12 January 2005. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011.
  7. "Sudan". Country Studies. n.d. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  8. "Geography of Sudan". Sudan Embassy in London. n.d. Archived from the original on 30 September 2005.
  9. "Sudan – Geography & Environment". Oxfam GB. n.d. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  10. "Desertification & Desert Cultivation Studies Institute". University of Khartoum. n.d. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  11. "Soil conservation and land reclamation in the Sudan". United Nations University. n.d. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  12. Ta‌̱mpi‌̱let:Unreliable source? "Sudan – Environment". Encyclopedia of the Nations. n.d. Retrieved 13 January 2011.